SB 5.22.7


atha ca yāvan nabho-maṇḍalaṁ saha dyāv-āpṛthivyor maṇḍalābhyāṁ kārtsnyena sa ha bhuñjīta taṁ kālaṁ saṁvatsaraṁ parivatsaram iḍāvatsaram anuvatsaraṁ vatsaram iti bhānor māndya-śaighrya-sama-gatibhiḥ samāmananti.


athaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigatha

after all; after this; after this offering of prayers by Vasudeva; also; and; and so on; and thereafter; as; as also; as such; as well (like the four Kumāras and others); as well; as well as; at last; at one time; at that time; because of this; Brahmaloka, the ultimate in material enjoyment; certainly; either; even though; for the matter of; for this reason; from him (Homa); from him; from Suhotra; furthermore; hence; hereafter (when the Lord accepted the throne on the request of Bharata); hereafter; herewith; if your son should not become like that; if, however; if, therefore; in this way; indeed; moreover; my brother Arjuna; now (after hearing the history of the dynasty of the sun); now; now(over and above these); of course; on the occasion of the Lord's appearance; otherwise; rather; still; then; then, from Prāruṇa; thereafter (after the appearance of the goddess of fortune); thereafter (the son of Upagupta); thereafter; thereafter, his son; therefore; thereof; thereupon (after the departure of his father); thereupon; thus (from Cākṣuṣa); thus (while coming back home); thus; when Vasudeva tried to take his transcendental son out of the confinement.
—now; caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

ca; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word ca; this word ca; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—also; yāvatplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyāvat

as; as far; as far as; as far as possible; as high as; as it is; as it may be; as long as; as long or as far as; as much as; during; just as; minimum; so long; so long as; so much as; the whole; until; until the time; whatever; when; while.
—as long as; nabhaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bignabhah

ether; in the skies; in the sky; like the sky; Nabha; sky; the sky; the small quantity of air; the whole sky; to the sky; toward the sky.
-maṇḍalamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmaṇḍalam

association; encirclement; globe; the globe.
—outer space, between the upper and lower world; sahaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsaha

accompanied; all together; along with; also with; simultaneously; with; with her.
—along with; dyauplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdyau

in outer space; of the upper world.
—of the upper world; āpṛthivyoḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigāpṛthivyoḥ

of the earth; of the lower world.
—of the lower world; maṇḍalābhyāmplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmaṇḍalābhyām

the spheres.
—the spheres; kārtsnyenaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigkārtsnyena

all in all; altogether; always; by summarization; completely (with no possibility that sinful desires will revive); entire; entirely; fully; in detail; in full; in sum total; in total; totally.
—entirely; saḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsaḥ

mahat-tattva; a person (Kaṁsa); a son; Aghāsura; all; anyone; Bharata Mahārāja; Brahmā; child Parīkṣit; Dakṣa; Dhruva; Dhruva Mahārāja; Dhṛtarāṣṭra; Durvāsā Muni; he (Agastya); he (Aghāsura); he (Ajāmila); he (Ambarīṣa Mahārāja); he (Aṅgirā Ṛṣi); He (Baladeva); he (Bali Mahārāja); he (Brahmā); he (Brahmājī); he (Budha); he (Citraketu); he (Dakṣa); he (Devāpi); he (Dhruva Mahārāja); he (Dhruva); he (Droṇa); he (Durvāsā); he (Emperor Manu); he (Gajendra); he (Garuḍa); he (Hiraṇyakaśipu); he (Hiraṇyakaśipu, the King of the Daityas); he (Indra); he (Jamadagni); he (Janamejaya); he (Jaḍa Bharata); he (Kardama); he (Kaṁsa); he (King Citraketu); he (King Hūhū); he (King Indra); he (King Kaṁsa); he (King Nīpa); he (King Pṛthu); he (King Rantideva); he (King Āgnīdhra); he (Kārtavīryārjuna); He (Kṛṣṇa); He (Lakṣmaṇa, the brother of Lord Rāmacandra); he (Lord Brahmā); He (Lord Kṛṣṇa); He (Lord Rāmacandra); He (Lord Viṣṇu); he (Lord Śiva); he (Mahārāja Ambarīṣa); he (Mahārāja Bharata); he (Mahārāja Priyavrata); he (Mahārāja Rahūgaṇa); he (Maitreya Muni); he (Manu); he (my father); he (Nahuṣa); he (Nābhāga); he (one who is not self-controlled); he (Prahlāda Mahārāja); he (Purūravā); he (Rantideva); he (Sarvatejā); He (Satyasena); he (Soma, the moon-god); he (Svāyambhuva Manu); he (that hunter); he (that uncivilized Kaṁsa); he (the muni); he (the conditioned soul); he (the devotee); he (the great man); he (the individual soul); he (the King); he (the leader of the elephants); He (the Lord); He (the Personality of Godhead); he (the serpent); he (the sun-god); He (the Supreme Lord); He (the Supreme Person); He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); he (Vasudeva); he (Vasudeva, also known as Ānakadundubhi); he (Venus); he (Vidura); he (Viśvarūpa); He (Vāmanadeva); he (Vāsudeva); he (Vīrabhadra); he (Vṛtra); he (Vṛtrāsura); he (Śukadeva Gosvāmī); he (Śukrācārya); he (Śūra); he (Ṛcīka); he (Ṛṣyaśṛṅga); he; He alone; he is; he, Durvāsā Muni; he, Hariścandra; he, Jamadagni; he, King Purūravā; he, Kārtavīryārjuna; he, Lord Paraśurāma; He, Lord Rāmacandra; he, Mahārāja Ambarīṣa; he, Mahārāja Sagara; he, Prahlāda Mahārāja; he, Purañjaya; he, Purūravā; he, Rohita; he, Rāvaṇa; he, Saubhari Muni; he, Saubhari Ṛṣi; he, so celebrated; he, Soma; he, the brāhmaṇa; he, the King; He, the Lord; he, Varuṇa; he, Vasiṣṭha; he, Vidura; He, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; Hiraṇyakaśipu; Hiraṇyākṣa; His Lordship; His Lordship the Supreme Personality of Godhead; his son Utkala; I am the same powerful person; is he; it; Jambhāsura; Kardama Muni; Kaśyapa; Kaśyapa Muni; King Dakṣa; King Indra; King Malayadhvaja; King Purañjana; King Pṛthu; King Vena; King Yayāti; Kṛṣṇa; Kṛṣṇa Himself; Lord Brahmā; Lord Kṛṣṇa; Lord Śiva; Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; Mahārāja Bharata; Mahārāja Ikṣvāku; Mahārāja Yayāti; Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; myself; one such as your good self; one who does so; Prahlāda Mahārāja; Prajāpati Dakṣa; Revata; so myself; someone; such; such a devotee; such a person; such a person as I am; such a personality; Sudyumna; Svāyambhuva Manu; that (great demon Maya Dānava); that (having the above symptoms); that (Supreme Personality of Godhead); that (Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa); that brāhmaṇa; that yoga system; that; that Ajāmila; that arrow; that banyan tree; that boy of the name Vena; whether that person; which; You; Your Lordship; yourself.
—he; haplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigha

alas; as he did it; certainly; clearly; completely manifested; have been; in fact; in that way; in the past; indeed; it is evident; it so happened; of course; oh; positively; so celebrated; so he did; so they did; still; then; there were; thus; very clearly.
—indeed; bhuñjītaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhuñjīta

he should eat; may pass through; must eat; one should take; pass; should take prasāda himself; should take the prasāda.
—may pass through; tamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtam

by Him; Dhruva; Dhruva Mahārāja; for that reason; from him (Kardama); from him (Maitreya); him (Ajāmila); him (Arjuna); him (Bali); him (Cyavana); him (Dhruva Mahārāja); him (Gajendra); him (Gargamuni); him (Hiraṇyakaśipu); him (Indra); him (Jaḍa Bharata); him (Kardama); him (King Yayāti); him (King Yudhiṣṭhira); Him (Kṛṣṇa); him (Lord Indra); Him (Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva); him (Lord Śiva); Him (Nara-Nārāyaṇa); him (Nārada Muni); him (Prahlāda Mahārāja); him (Prajāpati Dakṣa); him (Pṛthu); him (Pṛṣadhra); Him (Rohiṇī-nandana, the son of Rohiṇī); him (the bull); him (the condemned person); him (the he-goat); him (the King of heaven, Indra); him (the King); Him (the Lord); him (the male bird); him (the saintly person); Him (the Supreme Lord); Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa); him (Tṛṇabindu); him (Vasudeva); him (Vidura); him (Viśvarūpa); Him (Vāmanadeva); him (Vṛtrāsura); him; Him, Lord Rāmacandra; him, Mahārāja Sumitra.
—that; kālamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigkalam

elements; energies; very sweetly.
—time; saṁvatsaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsamvatsaram

a year; for a year; for one complete year; Saṁvatsara; year.
—Saṁvatsara; parivatsaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigparivatsaram

—Parivatsara; iḍāvatsaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigiḍāvatsaram

—Iḍāvatsara; anuvatsaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biganuvatsaram

Anuvatsara; every year; year after year.
—Anuvatsara; vatsaramplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvatsaram

—Vatsara; itiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigiti

thus; all these; also; and so on; as; as such; considering all these things; considering in that way; here; in this way (after giving everything to the brāhmaṇas); in this way; it is thus; known by these names; like that; like this; so it is; such; taking it as; that; therefore; they; this; thus (Hariścandra said); thus (saying out of contempt); thus (thinking in the above-mentioned way); thus (thinking); thus; thus accepted; thus accepting the words of Lord Brahmā; thus deciding; thus stated; thus thinking; thus vituperating.
—thus; bhānoḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhānoḥ

from the womb of Bhānu; of the sun.
—of the sun; māndyaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmāndya

characterized by slowness; slow.
—slow; śaighryaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigśaighrya

speedy; swiftness.
—speedy; samaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsama

and equal; equal; equal level; equal or proper; equal to; equally; equiposed; just like; like; of equal; same; symmetrical; the same; unaltered.
—and equal; gatibhiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biggatibhiḥ

by movement; by the speeds; the movements.
—by the speeds; samāmanantiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsamāmananti

the experienced scholars describe; they fully describe; they say.
—the experienced scholars describe. 


The sun-god has three speeds—slow, fast and moderate. The time he takes to travel entirely around the spheres of heaven, earth and space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, by the five names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara. 


According to solar astronomical calculations, each year extends six days beyond the calendar year, and according to lunar calculations, each year is six days shorter. Therefore, because of the movements of the sun and moon, there is a difference of twelve days between the solar and lunar years. As the Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara pass by, two extra months are added within each five years. This makes a sixth saṁvatsara, but because that saṁvatsara is extra, the solar system is calculated according to the above five names.