Bg. 16.1-3

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।
अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः ।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥१॥
अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् ।
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥२॥
तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥३॥


śrī-bhagavān uvāca
abhayaṁ sattva-saṁśuddhir
dānaṁ damaś ca yajñaś ca
svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam

ahiṁsā satyam akrodhas
tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṁ
mārdavaṁ hrīr acāpalam

tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam
adroho nāti-mānitā
bhavanti sampadaṁ daivīm
abhijātasya bhārata


śrīplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsri

and opulence; beautiful; beauty; fortune; Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune; named śrī; opulence or beauty; opulences; the affluent; the goddess of fortune; the goddess of fortune, or a beautiful calf; the treasury houses; transcendental; with opulence.
bhagavānplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhagavan

my dear Lord; my lord; O exalted sage; O godly personality; O great brāhmaṇa; O great sage (Śukadeva Gosvāmī); O great sage; O great saint; O great soul; O Lord; O Lord, Supreme Personality of Godhead; O most powerful; O most powerful devotee; O most powerful sage; O my Lord; O my lord, O great one; O Personality of Godhead; O possessor of all opulences; O powerful one; O Supreme; O Supreme Lord; O Supreme Lord, O Personality of Godhead; O Supreme Personality of Godhead; O supremely powerful one; O worshipful sage; O Your Lordship; the Personality of Godhead.
uvācaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_biguvāca

answered; described; explained; he recited; he said; inquired; prayed; replied; said; she said; she spoke; spoke; talked with them.
—the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; abhayamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigabhayam

Abhaya; assurance of safety; assurances; courage; fearless; fearlessness; fearlessness, liberation; freedom; freedom from all fears; freedom from the fearful condition of material existence; fully safe; safety; where there is no anxiety; without fear.
—fearlessness; sattvaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsattva

because of the conception of goodness; discretion; existence; goodness; of existence; of goodness; power; steadiness; the mode of goodness; to spiritual existence; transcendental.
-saṁśuddhiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsaṁśuddhiḥ

—purification of one’s existence; jñānaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigjñāna

and knowledge; as knowledge; by acquired knowledge; by knowledge; by the knowledge of the philosophy of the monist Māyāvādīs; cultivation of knowledge; empiric knowledge; having full knowledge; knowledge; knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; knowledge, philosophical speculations; knowledge-acquiring; knowledge-acquiring senses; material knowledge; notion; of knowledge; of knowledge through Vedic scriptures; of perfect knowledge; of philosophical speculation; of real spiritual knowledge; of scriptural knowledge; perfect knowledge; philosophical speculation; speculative cultivation of knowledge; speculative knowledge; such a consideration; such knowledge; the knowledge; the path of knowledge; the path of philosophical speculation; the path of speculative knowledge; with knowledge.
—knowledge; yogaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyoga

yoga practice; and mystic power; and of mystic yoga; and of the means; by bhakti-yoga, devotional service; by yoga; by yoga practice; by a conjunction; by devotional service; by mystic power; by mystic practice; by mysticism; by power of mystic yoga; by practice of yoga; by practice of devotion; by the process of linking with the Supreme by bhakti-yoga; concentration of the mind; connection; devotion; devotional service in karma-yoga; eightfold yoga; in the mystic yoga process; in the mystic yoga process; linking process; means; mystic haṭha-yoga; mystic yoga practices; mystic; mystic power; mystic powers; mystic yoga practice; mystic yogic meditation; of linking up; of mystic yoga; of mysticism; of the yoga system; of yogic perfections; practice of the mystic yoga system; the mystic yoga system; the practice of mystic yoga; the process of controlling the senses; the science of self-realization or bhakti-yoga; the yoga.
—of linking up; vyavasthitiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigvyavasthitiḥ

abiding; permanent situation; staying; the situation.
—the situation; dānamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdānam

acts of charity; charity; generosity.
—charity; damaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdamaḥ

(was named) Dama; control of the sense organs; control of the senses (not allowing the senses to act without control); control of the senses; controlling the senses; punishment (the stick, argumentum ad baculum); punishment; self-control.
caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

ca; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word ca; this word ca; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—and controlling the mind; yajñaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigyajnah

a name of Indra; Indra; Lord Viṣṇu; Lord Viṣṇu, known as Yajña; Lord Yajña; of the name Yajñapati or Yajñamūrti; performance of yajña; performance of sacrifice; personified yajña (Lord Viṣṇu, who is known as the yajña-puruṣa); sacrifice; sacrifices; the incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu; the Lord's incarnation as Yajña; the sacrifice; Viṣṇu; worshiping; Yajña.
caplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigca

ca; all these; also; also other bodily forms; also that I have not been able to ask; and (the five gross material elements and the ten acting and knowledge-gathering senses); and; and also; and Devahūti; and for all; and the paraphernalia; as also; as much as; as well; as well as; but; certainly; either; however; indeed; only; or; over and above; respectively; the word ca; this word ca; thus; totally; unlimitedly; verily.
—and performance of sacrifice; svādhyāyaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsvādhyāyaḥ

reading of transcendental literatures like Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata (or, for those not in Vedic culture, reading of the Bible or Koran); study of the Vedas; study of the Vedas; study of Vedic literature.
—study of Vedic literature; tapaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtapah

and austerities; austerities (such as observing fasts at least twice in a month on the day of Ekādaśī); austerities; austerities and penances; austerities like mental control, mystic yoga and meditation; austerity; austerity and penance; by austerities; by austerity; in austerity; of austerity; penance; penances; practice of austerities and penances; the austerity; the performers of austerities; the planetary system above the Janas; the regulative principles of austerity; the result of austerity; the Tapoloka planet; the Tapoloka planetary system; trueness to one's responsibility; with austerities.
—austerity; ārjavamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigārjavam

honesty; plain and simple; simplicity (freedom from mental duplicity); simplicity; straightforwardness.
—simplicity; ahiṁsāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigahiṁsā

nonviolence (not subjecting any living entity to the threefold miseries); nonviolence.
—nonviolence; satyamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsatyam

Absolute Truth; actually; certainly; highest truth; indeed; it is true; it is truth; now the boys decided that it was in fact a living python; of the name Satya; speaking the truth without distortion or deviation; take as truth; the Absolute Truth; the correct thing; the eternal supreme truth; the factual truth; the Lord is the original truth; the planet Satyaloka; the Supreme Truth; the topmost planetary system; the truth; the truth is; the ultimate truth; true; truly; truth; truthful; truthfully; truthfulness.
—truthfulness; akrodhaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigakrodhaḥ

freedom from anger.
—freedom from anger; tyāgaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtyāgaḥ

giving charity; giving in charity at least fifty percent of one's income; magnanimity; renunciation; renunciation, acceptance of sannyāsa, or charity; renunciation, acceptance of sannyāsa, or charity.
—renunciation; śāntiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigśāntiḥ

peace; Sānti; tranquility; Śānti.
—tranquility; apaiśunamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigapaiśunam

aversion to faultfinding.
—aversion to faultfinding; dayāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdaya

Dayā; His mercy; intolerance of others' unhappiness; mercy; sympathy to everyone suffering; there was mercy.
—mercy; bhūteṣuplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhūteṣu

among all living entities; among living entities; among the living beings; among the living entities; among the living entities and elements; among things generated (with and without symptoms of life); in all beings; in all living beings; in all living entities; in all manifestations; in every living being; in every living entity; in other living entities; in the five gross elements of material nature; in the living beings; in the living entities; into the material elements; living beings; living entities; living entity; manifestation; to all living entities; to living entities; to other living entities; to the living entities; towards all living entities; towards living entities; unto all living beings; unto living entities; unto the living beings; unto the living entities; unto the ordinary living beings; with all living beings.
—towards all living entities; aloluptvamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigaloluptvam

freedom from greed.
—freedom from greed; mārdavamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigmārdavam

gentleness; kindheartedness.
—gentleness; hrīḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bighrīḥ

Hrī; modesty; shyness.
—modesty; acāpalamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigacāpalam

—determination; tejaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigtejah

ability to defeat others; bodily effulgence; brilliance; by influence; effulgence; fire; glare; glories; heat; influence; light; of power; potency; power; prowess; semen; splendid; splendor; strength; supreme power; temperature; the brilliance; the brilliant effulgence; the curse; the fire in the body; the heat of which; the material power; vigor; wrath.
—vigor; kṣamāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigksama

excuse; forgiveness; kindly excuse; please excuse; please pardon.
—forgiveness; dhṛtiḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdhṛtiḥ

control; conviction; determination; Dhṛti; endurance; faithfulness; fortitude; patience (even in reverses, a kṣatriya is very grave); patience; such determination.
—fortitude; śaucamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigśaucam

cleanliness (bathing regularly at least twice a day, morning and evening, and remembering to chant the holy name of God); cleanliness; purity.
—cleanliness; adrohaḥplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigadrohaḥ

freedom from envy.
—freedom from envy; naplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigna

never; not; are not; but not; cannot; certainly not; could not; did not; do not; does it not; does not; is not; it is not; it is not so; may not; neither; never; never does; never to be; no; no one; none; nor; not; not like that; not preceded by oṁ; not suitable; nothing; or not; shall not; should never; there is none; there is not; there should not be; was not; whether; without.
—not; atimānitāplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigatimānitā

expectation of honor.
—expectation of honor; bhavantiplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbhavanti

abide; all become possible; appear; are; are existing; are generated; arise; become; become possible; can become; exist; flourish; grow; there are; they become.
—become; sampadamplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigsampadam

nature; qualities.
—qualities; daivīmplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigdaivīm

divine; of the Personality of Godhead; ominous; related to Viṣṇu; transcendental.
—transcendental; abhijātasyaplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigabhijātasya

one who is born; one who is born of.
—one who is born of; bhārataplugin-autotooltip__small plugin-autotooltip_bigbharata

Lord Bharata; the descendants of King Bharata.
—O son of Bharata. 


The Blessed Lord said: Fearlessness, purification of one’s existence, cultivation of spiritual knowledge, charity, self-control, performance of sacrifice, study of the Vedas, austerity and simplicity; nonviolence, truthfulness, freedom from anger; renunciation, tranquility, aversion to faultfinding, compassion and freedom from covetousness; gentleness, modesty and steady determination; vigor, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, freedom from envy and the passion for honor—these transcendental qualities, O son of Bharata, belong to godly men endowed with divine nature. 


In the beginning of the Fifteenth Chapter, the banyan tree of this material world was explained. The extra roots coming out of it were compared to the activities of the living entities, some auspicious, some inauspicious. In the Ninth Chapter, also, the devas, or godly, and the asuras, the ungodly, or demons, were explained. Now, according to Vedic rites, activities in the mode of goodness are considered auspicious for progress on the path of liberation, and such activities are known as deva prakṛti, transcendental by nature. Those who are situated in the transcendental nature make progress on the path of liberation. For those who are acting in the modes of passion and ignorance, on the other hand, there is no possibility of liberation. Either they will have to remain in this material world as human beings, or they will descend among the species of animals or even lower life forms. In this Sixteenth Chapter the Lord explains both the transcendental nature and its attendant qualities, as well as the demoniac nature and its qualities. He also explains the advantages and disadvantages of these qualities. 

The word abhijātasya in reference to one born of transcendental qualities or godly tendencies is very significant. To beget a child in a godly atmosphere is known in the Vedic scriptures as Garbhādhāna-saṁskāra. If the parents want a child in the godly qualities they should follow the ten principles of the human being. In Bhagavad-gītā we have studied also before that sex life for begetting a good child is Kṛṣṇa Himself. Sex life is not condemned provided the process is used in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Those who are in Kṛṣṇa consciousness at least should not beget children like cats and dogs but should beget them so they may become Kṛṣṇa conscious after birth. That should be the advantage of children born of a father or mother absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. 

The social institution known as varṇāśrama-dharma—the institution dividing society into four divisions or castes—is not meant to divide human society according to birth. Such divisions are in terms of educational qualifications. They are to keep the society in a state of peace and prosperity. The qualities mentioned herein are explained as transcendental qualities meant for making a person progress in spiritual understanding so he can get liberated from the material world. In the varṇāśrama institution the sannyāsī, or the person in the renounced order of life, is considered to be the head or the spiritual master of all the social statuses and orders. A brāhmaṇa is considered to be the spiritual master of the three other sections of a society, namely, the kṣatriyas, the vaiśyas and the śūdras, but a sannyāsī, who is on the top of the institution, is considered to be the spiritual master of the brāhmaṇas also. For a sannyāsī, the first qualification should be fearlessness. Because a sannyāsī has to be alone without any support or guarantee of support, he has simply to depend on the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If he thinks, “After leaving my connections, who will protect me?” he should not accept the renounced order of life. One must be fully convinced that Kṛṣṇa or the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His localized aspect as Paramātmā is always within, that He is seeing everything and He always knows what one intends to do. One must thus have firm conviction that Kṛṣṇa as Paramātmā will take care of a soul surrendered to Him. “I shall never be alone,” one should think. “Even if I live in the darkest regions of a forest I shall be accompanied by Kṛṣṇa, and He will give me all protection.” That conviction is called abhayam, without fear. This state of mind is necessary for a person in the renounced order of life. Then he has to purify his existence. There are so many rules and regulations to be followed in the renounced order of life. Most important of all, a sannyāsī is strictly forbidden to have any intimate relationship with a woman. He is even forbidden to talk with a woman in a secluded place. Lord Caitanya was an ideal sannyāsī, and when He was at Purī His feminine devotees could not even come near to offer their respects. They were advised to bow down from a distant place. This is not a sign of hatred for women as a class, but it is a stricture imposed on the sannyāsī not to have close connections with women. One has to follow the rules and regulations of a particular status of life in order to purify his existence. For a sannyāsī, intimate relations with women and possessions of wealth for sense gratification are strictly forbidden. The ideal sannyāsī was Lord Caitanya Himself, and we can learn from His life that He was very strict in regards to women. Although He is considered to be the most liberal incarnation of Godhead, accepting the most fallen conditioned souls, He strictly followed the rules and regulations of the sannyāsa order of the life in connection with association with woman. One of His personal associates, namely Choṭa Haridāsa, was personally associated with Lord Caitanya, along with His other confidential personal associates, but somehow or other this Choṭa Haridāsa looked lustily on a young woman, and Lord Caitanya was so strict that He at once rejected him from the society of His personal associates. Lord Caitanya said, “For a sannyāsī or anyone who is aspiring to get out of the clutches of material nature and trying to elevate himself to the spiritual nature and go back to home, back to Godhead, for him, looking toward material possessions and women for sense gratification—not even enjoying them, but just looking toward them with such a propensity—is so condemned that he had better commit suicide before experiencing such illicit desires.” So these are the processes for purification. 

The next item is jñāna-yoga-vyavasthitiḥ: being engaged in the cultivation of knowledge. Sannyāsī life is meant for distributing knowledge to the householders and others who have forgotten their real life of spiritual advancement. A sannyāsī is supposed to beg from door to door for his livelihood, but this does not mean that he is a beggar. Humility is also one of the qualifications of a transcendentally situated person, and out of sheer humility the sannyāsī goes from door to door, not exactly for the purpose of begging, but to see the householders and awaken them to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is the duty of a sannyāsī. If he is actually advanced and so ordered by his spiritual master, he should preach Kṛṣṇa with logic and understanding, and if he is not so advanced he should not accept the renounced order of life. But even if he has accepted the renounced order of life without sufficient knowledge, he should engage himself fully in hearing from a bona fide spiritual master to cultivate knowledge. A sannyāsī or one in the renounced order of life must be situated in fearlessness, sattva-saṁśuddhiḥ (purity) and jñāna-yoga (knowledge). 

The next item is charity. Charity is meant for the householders. The householders should earn a livelihood by an honorable means and spend fifty percent of their income to propagate Kṛṣṇa consciousness all over the world. Thus a householder should give in charity to such institutional societies that are engaged in that way. Charity should be given to the right receiver. There are different kinds of charities, as will be explained later on, charity in the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. Charity in the mode of goodness is recommended by the scriptures, but charity in the modes of passion and ignorance is not recommended because it is simply a waste of money. Charity should be given only to propagate Kṛsna consciousness all over the world. That is charity in the mode of goodness

Then as far as damaḥ (self-control) is concerned, it is not only meant for other orders of religious society, but it is especially meant for the householder. Although he has a wife, a householder should not use his senses for sex life unnecessarily. There are restrictions for the householders even in sex life, which should only be engaged in for the propagation of children. If he does not require children, he should not enjoy sex life with his wife. Modern society enjoys sex life with contraceptive methods or more abominable methods to avoid the responsibility of children. This is not in the transcendental quality but is demoniac. If anyone, even if he is a householder, wants to make progress in spiritual life, he must control his sex life and should not beget a child without the purpose of serving Kṛṣṇa. If he is able to beget children who will be in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one can produce hundreds of children, but without this capacity one should not indulge only for sense pleasure. 

Sacrifice is another item to be performed by the householders because sacrifices require a large amount of money. Other orders of life, namely the brahmacarya, the vānaprastha and sannyāsa, have no money; they live by begging. So performance of different types of sacrifice is meant for the householder. They should perform agni-hotra sacrifices as enjoined in the Vedic literature, but such sacrifices at the present moment are very expensive, and it is not possible for any householder to perform them. The best sacrifice recommended in this age is called saṅkīrtana-yajña, the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. This is the best and most inexpensive sacrifice; everyone can adopt it and derive benefit. So these three items, namely charity, sense control and performance of sacrifice, are meant for the householder. 

Then svādhyāyaḥ, Vedic study, and tapas, austerity, and ārjavam, gentleness or simplicity, are meant for the brahmacarya or student life. Brahmacārīs should have no connection with women; they should live a life of celibacy and engage the mind in the study of Vedic literature for cultivation of spiritual knowledge. This is called svādhyāyaḥ. Tapas or austerity is especially meant for the retired life. One should not remain a householder throughout his whole life; he must always remember that there are four divisions of life, brahmacarya, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. So after gṛhastha, householder life, one should retire. If one lives for a hundred years, he should spend twenty-five years in student life, twenty-five in householder life, twenty-five in retired life and twenty-five in the renounced order of life. These are the regulations of the Vedic religious discipline. A man retired from household life must practice austerities of the body, mind and tongue. That is tapasyā. The entire varṇāśrama-dharma society is meant for tapasyā. Without tapasyā or austerity no human being can get liberation. The theory that there is no need of austerity in life, that one can go on speculating and everything will be nice, is neither recommended in the Vedic literature nor in Bhagavad-gītā. Such theories are manufactured by showbottle spiritualists who are trying to gather more followers. If there are restrictions, rules and regulations, people will not become attracted. Therefore those who want followers in the name of religion, just to have a show only, don’t restrict the lives of their students nor their own lives. But that method is not approved by the Vedas. 

As far as simplicity is concerned, not only should a particular order of life follow this principle, but every member, be he in the brahmacarya-āśrama, or gṛhastha-āśrama or vānaprastha-āśrama. One must live very simply. 

Ahiṁsā means not arresting the progressive life of any living entity. One should not think that since the spirit spark is never killed even after the killing of the body there is no harm in killing animals for sense gratification. People are now addicted to eating animals, in spite of having an ample supply of grains, fruits and milk. There is no necessity for animal killing. This injunction is for everyone. When there is no other alternative, one may kill an animal, but it should be offered in sacrifice. At any rate, when there is an ample food supply for humanity, persons who are desiring to make advancement in spiritual realization should not commit violence to animals. Real ahiṁsā means not checking anyone’s progressive life. The animals are also making progress in their evolutionary life by transmigrating from one category of animal life to another. If a particular animal is killed, then his progress is checked. If an animal is staying in a particular body for so many days or so many years and is untimely killed, then he has to come back again in that form of life to complete the remaining days in order to be promoted to another species of life. So their progress should not be checked simply to satisfy one’s palate. This is called ahiṁsā. 

Satyam. This word means that one should not distort the truth for some personal interest. In Vedic literature there are some difficult passages, but the meaning or the purpose should be learned from a bona fide spiritual master. That is the process for understanding Vedas. Śruti means that one should hear from the authority. One should not construe some interpretation for his personal interest. There are so many commentaries on Bhagavad-gītā that misinterpret the original text. The real import of the word should be presented, and that should be learned from a bona fide spiritual master. 

Akrodhaḥ means to check anger. Even if there is provocation one should be tolerant, for once one becomes angry his whole body becomes polluted. Anger is the product of the modes of passion and lust, so one who is transcendentally situated should check himself from anger. Apaiśunam means that one should not find fault with others or correct them unnecessarily. Of course to call a thief a thief is not faultfinding, but to call an honest person a thief is very much offensive for one who is making advancement in spiritual life. Hrīḥ means that one should be very modest and must not perform some act which is abominable. Acāpalam, determination, means that one should not be agitated or frustrated in some attempt. There may be failure in some attempt, but one should not be sorry for that; he should make progress with patience and determination. The word tejaḥ used here is meant for the kṣatriyas. The kṣatriyas should always be very strong to be able to give protection to the weak. They should not pose themselves as nonviolent. If violence is required, they must exhibit it. 

Śaucam means cleanliness, not only in mind and body but in one’s dealings also. It is especially meant for the mercantile people, who should not deal in the black market. Nātimānitā, not expecting honor, applies to the śūdras, the worker class, which are considered, according to Vedic injunctions, to be the lowest of the four classes. They should not be puffed up with unnecessary prestige or honor and should remain in their own status. It is the duty of the śūdras to offer respect to the higher class for the upkeep of the social order. 

All these sixteen qualifications mentioned are transcendental qualities. They should be cultivated according to the different statuses of the social order. The purport is that even though material conditions are miserable, if these qualities are developed by practice, by all classes of men, then gradually it is possible to rise to the highest platform of transcendental realization.